Wednesday, 24 September 2014

A lesson with keeping clothes

A month or so ago, I replaced some partially torn winter pyjamas which I had worn with this tear for over a year after missing the window of opportunity to replace them in 2013.

Whilst I am aware that store-clothes must be washed before use, and have had a number of frightening experiences with non-colourfast clothes being placed in a warm or hot washing machine and destroying perfectly good whites, what I have experienced this morning is far worse than I feared.

Normally, I wash my sheets – two of my pairs being white and two a light blue – about every eight days, though my recent laxity and obsessiveness with statistics has lessened this. I planned last night to wash today the white 500 thread count Pima cotton sheets I bought in Northland during the autumn, and told my mother this in the morning. When I put them out, I saw that the part of the sheets upon which I lie – generally face down on my stomach – had dyed a light blue similar to my two blue pairs!

I was well aware my new striped royal blue pyjamas – made in Cambodia – were not colourfast from washing them in a hand-basin a number of times. I had noticed dye get into my fingernails on several previous wear of the pyjamas, but this really shocked me to the point of alarm!

When I actually washed the pyjamas, I was revealed my mistake very clearly. The pyjama bottoms, when washed with a quantity of OMO normal for a full laundry, turned so deep a blue in the wash basin that I felt it was almost worth a picture though I have no usable camera. Yet, the top part, when placed in water of the same temperature, remained relatively colourless until I added a smaller quantity of OMO, when they gradually turned as blue as the bottoms had! This made it clear to me that part of the problem of blue dye spreading was the result of my repeatedly using a quantity of laundry detergent designed for a full wash on one piece of sleepwear! It became obvious to me that in recent wears the pyjamas had large residues of OMO and LUX – residues which were helping the naturally non-colourfast dye to leak even when the pyjamas were dry, especially given that heat and sweat from my body over four or five nights would have provided moisture to dissolve the dye. The finding alarmed me, and I realised i would have to rinse the pyjamas until they were completely free of soap residues, and to use a fraction the quantity of laundry detergent needed for a full laundry! More than that I feel I should not wash pyjamas in the hand basin of the bathroom, since that basin is so cramped that the detergent is extremely inefficient at actually removing faeces and other stains from the pyjamas (I could see faeces in the pyjamas when I was washing).

Remembering to use only a pinch of detergent – or for the first few times to simply rinse until zero soap residue is attained – is a major job for me now and one I lack confidence about.

Thursday, 18 September 2014

ZIP codes of the form RRRRD

In my previous post I did US ZIP codes of the forms Rw and DRw, finding that relative to the possible number they were much more common than usual, though recent work shows only one true repdigit ZIP code still in use for Newtown Falls, Ohio, as USPS has merged the two others and several other near-repdigit ZIP codes.

This post will see me do ZIP codes of the form RwD. Compared to previous repdigit and near-repdigit ZIP codes, this list is extremely easy because if any ZIP codes with the same first four digits exist, they will be in similar localities, as seen with the one extant and two recently merged repdigit ZIP codes.
ZIP Code City State Notes
11110Unassigned
11112
11113
11114
11115
11116
11117
11118
11119
22220
22221
22223
22224
22225ArlingtonVirginiain vincinity of Pentagon
22226ArlingtonVirginiabounded by Washington Boulevard, North Monroe Street and North Fairfax drive
Includes George Mason University
22227ArlingtonVirginiabetween 23rd and 26th Street South and bounded by Crystal Drive and South Clark Street
Includes DeVry University
22228Unassigned22229 formerly assigned to Arlington
22229
33330Fort LauderdaleFloridabetween Sheridan Street, Southwest 26th Street, South Hiatus Road and southwest 148th Avenue
33331Fort LauderdaleFloridawest of 142nd Avenue and 148th Avenue to 185th Way
33332Fort LauderdaleFloridasouthwest of Weston Hills Country Club
33334Fort LauderdaleFloridaOakland Park region between Northeast 18th Avenue and North Andrews Avenue
33335Fort LauderdaleFloridaPO Boxes only
33336Unassigned
33337Fort LauderdaleFloridaPO Boxes only
33338Fort LauderdaleFlorida
33339Fort LauderdaleFlorida
44440Mineral RidgeOhioin Mahoning and Truble Counties, part of Youngstown metropolitan area
44441NegleyOhiobirthplace of eccentric anarchist and pacifist Ammon Hennacy
in Columbiana County on Pennsylvania border
44442New MiddletownOhioin Mahoning County on Pennsylvania border; part of Youngstown metropolitan area
44443New SpringfieldOhioin Mahoning County
44445New WaterfordOhioin Columbiana County southwest of Turnpike
44446NilesOhioin Trumbull County; part of Youngstown metropolitan area
44447Unassigned
44448Unassigned
44449North BentonOhiorural area of Mahoning County south of Berlin Lake and Route 62, due east of Akron.
55550Young AmericaMinnesotaPO Boxes only
55551Young AmericaMinnesota
55552Young AmericaMinnesota
55553Young AmericaMinnesota
55554Young AmericaMinnesota
55556Young AmericaMinnesota
55557Young AmericaMinnesota
55558Young AmericaMinnesota‘Young America Corporation’ only
55559Young AmericaMinnesotaPO Boxes only
66660Unassigned
66661
66662
66663
66664
66665
66667TopekaKansasPO Boxes only
66668Unassigned
66669
77770
77771
77772
77773
77774
77775
77776
77778
77779
88880UnassignedNo extant ZIP codes begin with “888”
88881
88882
88883
88884
88885
88886
88887
88889
99990UnassignedHighest ZIP code is 99950 for Ketchikan, Alaska
99991
99992
99993
99994
99995
99996
99997
99998
This result shows that 27 of 90 RwD ZIP codes are in use, or exactly thirty percent. This, in fact, does suggest that the US Postal Service avoids repdigits to some extent in a manner the DRw ZIP codes from the previous post did not.

RwD ZIP codes in use are only found in five of the possible nine regions (there are no ZIP codes from ‘00000’ to ‘00499) and for street addresses in only three – mainly in Arlington, Virginia and Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The number in use could easily fall as PO Boxes are used less, too.

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

ZIP codes of the form DRRRR and RRRRR (repdigit)

In a previous post I recalled a project I tried to do at zipinfo and zipdecode a list of prime near-repdigit ZIP codes. In 2004, I had noticed how, looking only at the prime subset, few ZIP codes of the form DRRRR or RRRRD seemed to exist, and originally planned to examine this.

However, a clearer look shows that in fact near-repdigit ZIP codes are more common that I imagined when I first re-did my work on zipdecode a couple of weeks ago. Thus, I have felt that to list them I will have to subdivide near-repdigit ZIP codes according to the form of the number.

This first installment will look at DRRRR-type near-repdigit ZIP codes, and in the process I will also look at true repdigit ZIP codes. When I first realised not all possible ZIP codes were in use – and the number actually in use for contiguous US addresses covered in zipdecode is fewer than even the 42,000 or so currently in use – I found these numbers interesting because of the coverage of palindromic prime ZIP codes by The Prime Pages and I wanted to look at other unusual codes – as well as prime postcodes here in Australia. I did a bit of work now deleted from the Prime Pages back in 2004, but for some reason felt I should re-do this.

ZIP Code City State Notes
10000Unassigned
11111
12222AlbanyNew Yorkbetween Washington and Western Avenues
Includes State University of New York campus
13333East SpringfieldNew YorkNortheast of Osego Lake
14444Unassigned
15555QuecreekPennsylvaniaShared with ZIP code 15561
16666Osceola MillsPennsylvaniaWest of Phillsburg and State Game Reserve 33
17777WatsontownPennsylvaniaon Susquehanna River north of Harrisburg
18888Unassigned
19999
20000
21111MonktonMarylandnorth of Baltimore on I-83
22222Unassigned (22222 was previously assigned to part of Arlington, Virginia)
23333
24444
25555PrichardWest Virginiaon Kentucky border on Big Sandy River – a tributary of the Ohio River
26666Unassigned
27777
28888
29999
30000
31111
32222JacksonvilleFloridasouth of 103rd Street, east of Cecil Commerce Center and north of Argyle Forest Boulevard.
33333Unassigned
34444
35555FayetteAlabamanorthwest of Tuscaloosa on Route 43 in county of same name
36666Unassigned
37777LouisvilleTennesseeon Tennessee River south of Knoxville
38888Unassigned
39999
40000
41111
42222
43333LewistownOhioin Logan County 5 kilometres from Indian Lake
44444Newton FallsOhioon the Mahoning River southeast of Warren in Trumbull County
45555Unassigned
46666
47777
48888StantonMichiganin rural Montcalm County on state 66
49999Unassigned
50000
51111Sioux CityIowaMostly Sioux City Gateway Airport, but north to Missouri River (where borders on South Sioux City, Nebraska) and east to I-29
52222Deep RiverIowain Poweshiek County,about 75 kilometres (45 miles) from Iowa City.
53333Unassigned
54444KempsterWisconsinin rural Langland County in north of state
55555Unassignedformerly assigned to Young America, Carver County, Minnesota
56666PonemahMinnesotain remote Beltrah County on Red Lake Indian Reservation
57777Red OwlSouth Dakotain Meade County east of Rapid City
58888Unassigned
59999
60000
61111Loves ParkIllinoisin Winnebago County in northernmost part of state; part of Rockford statistical area
62222BellevilleIllinoison Missouri border in St. Clair County; most populous city south of Springfield in downstate Illinois
63333BellflowerMissouriin Montgomery County on lower Missouri River
64444EdgertonMissouriin rural Platte County on border with Kansas
part of Kansas City metropolitan area
65555RaymondvilleMissouriin Texas County in southern Ozarks
66666Unassigned
67777
68888
69999
70000
71111Bossier CityLouisianain Bossier Parish, part of Shreveport metropolitan area where second largest city
72222Little RockArkansascity downtown directly south of Arkansas River
73333Unassigned
74444MoodysOklahomain Cherokee County in east of state
75555BivinsTexasin Cass County on border with Arkansas and Louisiana
76666MertensTexasin Hill County in the north central part of the state
77777Unassigned
78888
79999El PasoTexasPO Boxes only
80000Unassigned
81111
82222Lance CreekWyomingin Niobrara County in east of state
83333HaileyIdahoin central mountains of state, seat of Blaine County
famous as current home of 1980s tennis star Mats Wilander and birthplace of poet Ezra Pound
84444Unassigned
85555
86666
87777
88888
89999
90000
91111
92222BardCaliforniain Imperial county on Arizona and Mexico border
93333Unassigned
94444
95555OrickCaliforniaon North Coast in Humboldt County
96666FPOUnited States Navyall ZIP codes from 96200 to 96699 are Pacific military
97777Unassigned
98888
99999
Overall, thirty-three of ninety possible ZIP codes of the forms Rw and DRw are in use, which is only marginally lower a proportion than for all possible US ZIPs and does not suggest near-repdigit ZIP codes are avoided – my mother said today they would be much easier to remember and that people would say them “one double one double one” for the (unassigned) repunit ZIP code. Only codes with repeated zeroes seem to be avoided, perhaps because most state capitals in the US are relatively small towns with a public service orientation much more pronounced than Canberra – for example Frankfort, Kentucky has only 25,000 of about 4,400,000 people in the state.

Monday, 8 September 2014

Near-repdigit prime ZIP codes

Around a decade ago when I was rekindling interest in prime numbers, I studied US ZIP codes because they were noted on the site. I recall from ZIPinfo:
“ZIP code 69577 is not currently assigned by the US Postal Service to any city. Only about 43,000 of the 100,000 possible 5-digit ZIP codes are currently in use.”
and similar sayings for ZIP codes 23333, 86453, 11113, 54342 and no doubt others that I cannot recall. My brother showed me the more user-friendly zipdecode where one could see why the ZIP code 69577 (the number of runs conceded by record-breaking Kent spin bowler “Tich” Freeman in his career) does not exist – if it did it would be in the remote Nebraska Panhandle. In fact no ZIP codes from 69400 to 69999 exist, probably owing to the economic decline of the Plains.

Back in 2004, I looked for near-repdigit prime ZIP codes of the forms RwD and DRw on zipdecode and was struck by how few there actually were relative to the possible ones. I did not count how many possible ZIP codes were but the number I found in use was no more than a handful.

This night, I decided to have a another look and publish my results. Even counting other forms of near-repdigit five-digit prime (RDRw, RRDRR, RwDR) I could find only the following twelve when I found 22229 was no longer used:
ZIP Code City State Notes
10111 New York City New York
11411 Cambria Heights New York a middle-class New York City neighbourhood
16111 Atlantic Pennsylvania in rural western Pennsylvania northeast of Youngstown, Ohio
33331 Fort Lauderdale Florida west of 142nd Avenue and 148th Avenue to 185th Way
38333 Eva Tennessee rural area of Benton County west of Nashville and on Kentucky Lake
44449 North Benton Ohio rural area of Mahoning County south of Berlin Lake and Route 62, due east of Akron.
77377 Tomball Texas Houston exurb in northwest of metropolitan area
77477 Stafford Texas Houston exurb near Sugar Land
77977 Placedo Texas
small village between Victoria and San Antonio Bay
79999 El Paso Texas post office boxes only
94999 Petaluma California southern Napa Valley north of San Pablo Bay. Rural area of Sonoma County and major wine-growing area.
99929 Wrangel Alaska superhumid southeast Alaska not far from Ketchikan
A recent calculation showed thirty-five possible near-repdigit prime ZIP codes without leading zero, which means 34.28 percent of possible near-repdigit prime ZIP codes are in use. Given that the US Postal Service and most others do not need to use every possible code, it is natural that extremely repetitious codes like “two-three-three-three-three” or “two quadruple three” would be avoided, for the obvious reason that they are tough to memorise! Thus, it is not surprising that of the twelve, four are “palindromic wing primes” (out of six possible) and only three have four consecutive copies of one digit. The proportion actually used is certainly larger than I had thought, because it is tough to be really thorough from the prime table I have been using.

Friday, 22 August 2014

Proof of how insular our suburbs really are

Over the past decade and a half, just how insular and unaffected by prevailing trends in music and culture the suburbs in which I and most children in Australia were raised actually are has dawned upon me.

Even when I still lived at Keilor Downs, I was well aware that many different stations existed in suburban Australia. The vast majority of small stations, however, played extremely conservative and often very old pop music, and only Triple J and Triple R played anything different from what Joe S. Harrington and David Keenan demonstrated to me during the 2000s as extremely derivative commercial music whose originators were never heard on Australian radio.

What Triple J at all events played was generally even worse – tuneless, noisy grunge bands like Silverchair, the Offspring and Nirvana which I had so little patience with that it drove me off commercial radio when hearing the tuneless “New Mexico, New Mexico”. The music of community stations I already thought very uninteresting, but it was not as bad as those bands or the Presidents of the United States of America – and experience was making it tough for me to try “alternative” music as I thought “alternative” was all really violent and inspired people to say things like “I’ll (expletive) kill you” or “I’m gonna shoot you, (expletive)”, which had me worrying about my life.

However, reading about music on a broader scale showed that – whilst I was only able to listen to a very restrictive range of pop music – a musical and cultural revolution was happening in the Enriched World, whereby gangsta rap and thrash metal were becoming mainstays of most of the population, especially the working masses. “Generation X”, as it was called, took up radical individualism and radical egalitarianism as its basic ideals, ones that were heard on the mainstream of Australian radio very little and only for a few years in the middle 1990s before teen pop took hold of airplay.

As a young man, I assumed these ideals would be stronger in Australia because of its “car culture”, but now I recognise that the insular character of the family car is actually entirely opposite to the extreme masculinity (much more absolute hatred of traditional femininity) found in the Enriched World’s modern culture.

In recent times, election results and opinion polls show that we are witnessing a repeat of this divergence (in other words, a further divergence of suburban Australia from Enriched World political standards). Whereas Enriched and Tropical World cities are so densely crowded any child is enfolded in noise, as I can testify from being in Berlin and Singapore, most Australian cities are extremely quiet and there is ample space for families to play and enjoy themselves as well as study.

Under such conditions, it is clear that parents would prefer to avoid something at all angry, let alone the anti-religion anthem of the Enriched World’s Generation X – ‘(expletive) Hostile’

or what may become its equivalent for the Enriched World’s “Generation Y” and “Generation Z” – the overtly controversial ‘Pearl of a Girl’

because these would be disturbing to the establishment of family relationships. Indeed, it is very likely that hearing such songs would have an effect on community relationships in general, because their message is clearly one of complete individualism with laws to eliminate restraint thereon, as opposed to merely an absence of laws to limit individualism. At the same time, songs like ‘(expletive) Hostile’ are what can teach children about industrial-age Enriched World culture – the music taught in schools does nothing theretoward.

In 2003, Peter Rentfrow and Samuel Gosling in ‘The Do Re Mi’s of Everyday Life: The Structure and Personality Correlates of Music Preferences’ showed that there exists an “upbeat and conventional” category characterised by
“genres that emphasize positive emotions and are structurally simple”
which clearly corresponds to the type of emotions mothers would wish to convey to their children, rather than the “structurally complex” character of classical and jazz or the “full of energy and emphasise themes of rebellion” character of alternative and metal. It is thus not surprising that pop, soundtrack and religious music dominate in quiet and isolated residential enclaves distant from commercial or academic hotbeds. This is indeed the tendency I saw at every record store in the outer suburbs of Melbourne during my regrettable “galloping round the countryside” on buses a decade ago: the shelves, much more than in city stores, were filled with “easy listening” and country artists who would be considered dated by most in the Enriched World or inner suburbs.

Major and most minor radio stations are all present or past “pop and Top 40” in format – completely lacking are the college stations or non-classical public stations of the Enriched World – so that there is little incentive to play much variety of songs. Neither have genuinely cutting-edge bands toured Australia whilst in what critics regard as their “prime” – for instance Metallica were all but unknown down under until they released their self-titled album, whose change of style caused many old fans and later converts to their 1980s albums to rename the band ‘Selloutica’ or ‘Metallicash’. Young mothers and fathers would certainly turn off the radio if they played a song like ‘Pearl of a Girl’ whether they heard the blasphemous lyrics or not, whereas the students and lower-class workers of Enriched World cities, feeling unjustly treated by the market or politicians, take perfectly to them and their messages that people have every right to do whatever they want no matter how it affects others (emotionally as well as physically).

The recent findings of Jason Millward in the 18 August Advertiser should thus not be considered remotely surprising, although major radio stations used to have lists of the top 500 songs or albums of all time and still do “no repeat” days during the week, whose veracity I have always believed without ever bothering to check. Millward’s study, like last year’s election, should be as instructive to foreigners wanting to learn about Australia as to Australians themselves, and my hope is that it will begin a long-needed correction of misconceptions about Australia and its culture.